Skip to main content
SearchLoginLogin or Signup

NC-OFDM-SPM: A Two-Dimensional Non-Coherent Modulation Scheme for Achieving the Coherent Performance of OFDM along with Sending an Additional Data-stream

In this work, the authors prove the ability of non-coherent OFDM with subcarrier power modulation (NC-OFDM-SPM), which has been proposed as a two-dimensional modulation scheme, in achieving the coherent performance of plain OFDM scheme, under proper power reassignment mechanism.

Published onApr 10, 2021
NC-OFDM-SPM: A Two-Dimensional Non-Coherent Modulation Scheme for Achieving the Coherent Performance of OFDM along with Sending an Additional Data-stream


A promising candidate solution for reducing complexity in future wireless systems is the use of non-coherent designs; however, it is very well known in the literature that non-coherent schemes perform worse than their coherent counterparts. To address this longstanding challenging trade-off, we demonstrate and prove in this work the ability of the proposed two-dimensional modulation scheme termed as non-coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with subcarrier power modulation and differential phase shift keying in achieving the performance of a coherent design, while reducing complexity. Although the proposed design is non-coherent (i.e., it uses differential phase shift keying and power difference to convey information), it achieves the same bit error rate (BER) performance as conventional OFDM with coherent BPSK. Furthermore, since the proposed scheme employs two-dimensional modulations simultaneously (i.e., DPSK and subcarrier power levels), an additional data stream can be transmitted through the power subcarriers’ levels. Thus, the proposed design not only solves the trade-off between coherent and non-coherent modulations in terms of reliability by achieving the same BER, but also provides higher data rates by exploring the power domain as an additional dimension for conveying extra data bits, while maintaining low complexity transceiver design, thus making it very appealing for IoT applications.

INDEX TERMS: Non-coherent, Internet of Things, IoT, non-coherent OFDM, subcarrier power modulation, OFDM-SPM, wireless communication.


[1] R. Mesleh, H. Haas, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun. "Spatial modulation-OFDM." In Proc. of the International OFDM Workshop, pp. 30-31. 2006.

[2] R. Abu-alhiga and H. Haas, “Subcarrier-index modulation OFDM,” in 2009 IEEE 20th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Sep. 2009, pp. 177–181.

[3] E. Basar, Ümit Aygölü öu, E. Panayirci, and H. V. Poor, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation,”2012 IEEE GlobalCommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), pp. 4741–4746, 2012.

[4] A. M. Jaradat, J. M. Hamamreh, and H. Arslan, “OFDM with subcarrier number modulation ,”IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 7, no.6, pp. 914–917, Dec 2018.

[5] C. Xu et al., "Sixty Years of Coherent Versus Non-Coherent Tradeoffs and the Road From 5G to Wireless Futures," in IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 178246-178299, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2957706.

[6] J. Armstrong and B. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 343–345, 2008.

[7] N. Fernando, Y. Hong and E. Viterbo, ”Flip-OFDM for Unipolar Communication Systems,” in IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3726-3733, December 2012. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2012.082712.110812.

[8] Fernando N, Hong Y, Viterbo E. Self Heterodyne OFDM Transmission for Frequency Selective Channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications2013; 61(5): 1936-1946. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2013.021913.120510

[9] Q. Jin, Y. Hong and E. Viterbo, "Self-coherent OFDM for wireless communications," 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), London, 2015, pp. 4303-4308, doi: 10.1109/ICC.2015.7248999.

[10] Choi J. Non-coherent OFDM-IM and Its Performance Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2018; 17(1): 352-360. doi:10.1109/TWC.2017.2766620

[11] A. Hajar, J. M. Hamamreh, M. Abewa, and Y. Belallou, “A spectrally efficient OFDM-based modulation scheme for future wireless systems,” in 2019 Scientific Meeting on Electrical-Electronics Biomedical Engineering and Computer Science (EBBT), April 2019, pp. 1–4.

[12] Hamamreh JM, Hajar A, Abewa M. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with subcarrier power modulation for doubling the spectral efficiency of 6G and beyond networks. Trans Emerging Tel Tech.2020;31:e3921.

[13] Hajar,A., Hamamreh, J.M (2020). The Generalization of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing With Subcarrier Power Modulation to Quadrature Signal Constellations. RS Open Journal on Innovative Communication Technologies, 1(1).

[14] Abewa, M., Hamamreh, J. M. (2020). Non-coherent OFDM Subcarrier Power Modulation for Low Complexity and High Throughput IoT Applica-tions. RS Open Journal on Innovative Communication Technologies, 1(1).

[15] A. Jaradat, J. Hamamreh, and H. Arslan, “Modulation options for OFDM-based waveforms: Classification, comparison, and future directions,”IEEEAccess, vol. 7, pp. 17 263–17 278, 2019.

[16] Goldsmith, A. (2005). Wireless Communications. Cambridge: Cam-bridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO97805118412

1 of 5

No comments here

Why not start the discussion?